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Link Appeals against Title II regulation denied

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Friday, 06-12-15

The court of appeals has rejected an attempt by ISPs to stay the implementation of Title II common carrier net neutrality regulations. The new rules go into effect tomorrow.

Courts Net Neutrality WISPA


Link Ubiquiti PowerBeam/NanoBeam/AC UNII-1/2 activation process

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Monday, 06-01-15

After a VERY long wait, Ubiquiti have finally made some headway on UNII-1 and DFS approvals for their newer products. They aren't finalized yet, but you can pre-order labels and activation codes from their site at community.ubnt.com.

DFS NanoBeam PowerBeam Rocket AC Ubiquiti UNII-1


Blog Article Review: Netonix WISP Switch Mini WS-6-MINI

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Wednesday, 05-20-15

We originally intended to do a full, in-depth review with performance measurements – but we found ourselves with an emergency, and rushed it into service. The WISP switch not only survived a trial by fire, but it did so with great aplomb - earning five stars from us.

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netonix toughswitch WISP switch


Snippet New Tool: Visibility View-Shed Generator

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Wednesday, 04-29-15

Have you ever wanted a quick way to see what is visible from a potential tower location? Our Visibility/View Shed Tool can answer your question in seconds. No need to load up slow tools for a quick visibility estimate.

tower coverage viewshed visibility


Snippet More free tools for you: Range Calculator and Antenna Visualizer

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-21-15

We have been busy this week, adding a new Distance Calculator and Antenna Pattern Visualizer to the site. The distance calculator lets you answer the question "how far will my NanoBeam pair reach?", while the antenna visualizer lets you view pattern files online.

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Link Radio Shootout, Part 2: Ubiquiti vs. Mikrotik vs. Mimosa, multiple devices

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Monday, 04-20-15

Ubiquiti community stalwart eejim has posted the second part of his radio shootout. In this part, he compares the performance of Ubiquiti, Mikrotik and Mimosa AC devices head-to-head, with simulated interference. Ubiquiti once again come out on top.

Mikrotik Mimosa Performance Rocket AC Ubiquiti UBNT


Blog Article RF Planner Beta - Quick Start Guide

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Monday, 04-20-15

This is intended for the beta-testers of our new RF Planner application, but can serve as an outline of some of our functionality if you are just curious as to what we're cooking up.

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Beta Quick-Start RF Planner Tower Coverage


Link Radio Shootout Part 1, Rocket AC Lite vs. Mimosa

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Saturday, 04-18-15

Regular forum contributor eejim has posted an excellent head-to-head comparison of Rocket AC Lite vs. Mimosa brand radios on the Ubiquiti forums. Well worth a read. On all except the largest channels, Ubiquiti comes out ahead.

Mimosa Rocket AC Lite Ubiquiti UBNT


E-Book Section Chapter 4: Practical Examples

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This section takes all of the knowledge from the previous e-book sections, and combines them into real-world link coverage estimations. You now have the tools to understand how RF Planners work, and to get a link up and running.

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E-Book Section Chapter 4: Antennas Patterns and Downtilt

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

A final real-world factor to consider in designing a wireless link is that not all antennas are created equal. Omni-directional antennas cover all directions, while sector antennas may only cover a 60 degree swathe of countryside. Additionally, how far up (or down) you point your antenna can make a huge difference. This section will discuss antenna patterns, downtilt, and how to use them to your advantage.

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E-Book Section Chapter 4: Real World Path Loss Estimation

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Another topic to consider is that the “Free Space Path Loss” calculations presented in this section presume that you are transmitting across a perfectly open space, with no terrain, obstacles, signal reflections/multi-path or other problems. In the real-world, this is very rarely the case!

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E-Book Section Chapter 4: Noise Floor and Interference

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Noise Floor (the amount of background noise affecting your link's frequency), and Interference (sources of noise on your channel) can greatly affect link performance. As we discussed in the Shannon-Hartley section, a link is only as good as the difference between the noise floor and the signal strength (SNR).

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E-Book Section Chapter 4: Fresnel Zones

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Fresnel zones describe the shape of the radio waves going across your wireless link. It isn't enough to have simple line-of-sight - you need to account for a

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E-Book Fresnel Fresnel Zones Fundamentals Line of Sight Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 4: Trees and Other Obstacles

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This section discusses the effects of trees (and other obstacles) on your link. Some frequencies, such as 900 Mhz and 2.4 Ghz do ok with trees. Some, such as 5.8 Ghz and above, can be completely blocked by a single tree. It varies, but a good rule of thumb is: avoid foliage!

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2.4 Ghz 24 Ghz 5.8 Ghz 900 Mhz E-Book Fundamentals Obstructions Trees Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 4: Fade Margin and Rain Fade

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

“Rain fade” is a particularly common phenomenon, and needs to be accounted for in link calculations. Droplets of water in the air can attenuate signal, to differing degrees depending upon frequency. The lower frequencies such as 900 mhz and 2.4 ghz barely see a change for rain. 5.8 ghz sees a minimal change. Higher frequencies such as 24 ghz can easily be reduced to worthless by a torrential downpour.

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E-Book Fade Margin Fundamentals ITU Math Rain Fade Rain Zones Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 4: Introduction - Non-Ideal Conditions

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Chapter 4 will explore the issues that make the theory of Chapters 1 and 2 more difficult: Fresnel-Zones, Obstructions, Rain Fade and more.

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E-Book Fundamentals Introduction Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 3: Conclusion

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Summary of chapter 3, and teasers for chapter 4. We've learned how to create link budgets, determine modulation schemes, and what that will mean for our link.

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Conclusion E-Book Fundamentals Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 3: Combining MCS and Link Budget

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Now that we've covered how to determine a link budget, and what a modulation scheme means, it's time to combine the two. This gives you a good idea of what to expect from a wireless link.

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E-Book Fundamentals Link Budget MCS Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 3: Modulation

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Using a basic free-space path loss and link-budget calculation, it is possible to determine whether a link is possible. However, that calculation doesn't give you much immediate feedback as to how useful the link will be. The actual throughput of a functional link-budget is determined by two factors: modulation scheme, and channel-width. Additionally, a certain signal quality is required to achieve a given modulation scheme. This section will help you understand channel modulation schemes.

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E-Book Section Chapter 3: Asymmetric Link Budgets

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Often, a simple link budget only tells you half of the story. Unless your devices at each end are identical, you need to calculate a link budget for each direction - and use the worst of the two. This section walks you through the process.

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E-Book Section Chapter 3: Link Budgets

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter discusses two topics that will come up time and again while planning your WISP: path loss (how far can my signal go?), and link budget (what devices can I use for this link?).

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E-Book Section Chapter 3: Path Loss and Free-Space Path Loss (FSPL)

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter discusses two topics that will come up time and again while planning your WISP: path loss (how far can my signal go?), and link budget (what devices can I use for this link?).

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Distance E-Book Free Space Path Loss Frequency FSPL Fundamentals Inverse Square Law Math Path Loss Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 3: Introduction

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter discusses two topics that will come up time and again while planning your WISP: path loss (how far can my signal go?), and link budget (what devices can I use for this link?).

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E-Book Fundamentals Introduction Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2: Conclusion

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter has discussed the real-world implications of channel width, MIMO and polarity on data-encoding rate, and real-world throughput. Building upon the theory in chapter 1, it is now possible to select a vendor and communications protocol, and to get an understanding of the total data-rate that can be achieved over a given link.

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Conclusion E-Book Fundamentals Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2: Efficiency: Combining Data-Rates with the Shannon Formula

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

By combining the 802.11X standards for data-rate encoding over multiple spatial streams with the Shannon formula, it is possible to gauge the relative efficiency of the 802.11X protocols, and to see how much room for improvement remains to be squeezed out of future products.

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802.11AC 802.11b 802.11n E-Book Efficiency Fundamentals Shannon Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2: Polarity and MIMO

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Modern radios provide multiple simultaneous data-streams, enabling significant boosts in throughput over older single-stream radios. This is achieved in two ways: through polarity separation, and through Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (“MIMO”) channels. MIMO offers the ability to use spatial streams on top of polarity streams, sometimes doubling effective capacity.

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2x2 E-Book Fundamentals MIMO Polarity Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2: Channel Widths

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Once you have selected a base frequency range, you need to pick a “channel width.” Typically for Ubiquiti and Mikrotik equipment, these are available as 5mhz, 10mhz, 20mhz, 30mhz and 40mhz. With the advent of 802.11ac based equipment, even larger channel widths (up to 80 mhz) are becoming available. Channel width is a trade-off, and should be carefully considered.

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E-Book Section Chapter 2: Proprietary Cellular Protocols (WiMAX and LTE)

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Much of this book focuses on Wi-Fi, and Wi-Fi derived protocols (such as AirMAX, and the Canopy system). However, it is worth remembering that there are other options. Both WiMAX and LTE primarily target the cellular telephony market, but are available for Internet distribution as well.

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E-Book Fundamentals LTE WiMAX Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2, Wireless Protocols

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

There are two major types of wireless protocol in use in the modern WISP arena: Wi-Fi based systems, and proprietary systems. In reality, the majority of WISPs operate a hybrid of the two. This section explains the differences between Wi-Fi, proprietary Wi-Fi extensions such as AirMAX, and purely proprietary systems such as WiMAX or LTE.

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E-Book Section Chapter 2, Spectrum Bands: Different Frequencies

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

There are three major frequency bands available for WISPs to provide coverage to customers, and a fourth that is gaining acceptance for large trunk links. Spectrum bands are described in terms of their frequency range; the ranges stay the same in most regions, while details such as channel availability vary widely between jurisdictions. Learn about 2.4 Ghz, 5.8 Ghz, 900 Mhz and 24 Ghz spectrum bands.

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2.4 Ghz 5.8 Ghz 900 Mhz E-Book Fundamentals Noise Penetration Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2, Spectrum Bands: Licensed vs. Unlicensed

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter discusses some of the more common spectrum bands available for use by a WISP, and their relative advantages and disadvantages. The majority of WISPs operate in what is called “unlicensed spectrum”; that is, spectrum that is made freely available by their country's regulatory bodies for anyone to use. Other options exist; this section examines these options.

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Congestion E-Book FCC Fundamentals Licensed Spectrum Noise Performance Regulatory Limits Unlicensed Spectrum Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 2: Introduction to Spectrum Bands, Protocols and Channel Widths

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

This chapter discusses some of the more common spectrum bands, protocols and technologies available for use by a WISP, and their relative advantages and disadvantages.

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E-Book Fundamentals Introduction Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 1: Conclusion

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Summary of chapter 1, in which you have learned how radios work, the meaning of decibels, about MIMO and polarity, and the Shannon-Hartley theorem.

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Conclusion E-Book Fundamentals Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 1: The Shanon-Hartley Theorem

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

The Shannon-Hartley theorem specifies the maximum amount of information that can be encoded over a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise. It serves as an upper ceiling for radio transmission technologies. Understanding how this relates to signal-to-noise ratio can help you understand how much bandwidth it is possible to obtain over a wireless link.

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Bandwidth E-Book Fundamentals Hartley Nyquist Shannon Shannon-Hartley Signal to Noise Ratio SNR Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 1: Decibels, Can You Hear Me Now?

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

You have probably heard of decibels, in the context of loud noises, rock concerts and similar. Decibels are also used in a radio context, and have a very similar meaning. In this case, the frequencies used are far beyond what humans can perceive – but the concept is the same, it represents “how loud is the signal from the other end?” Much of the content later-on requires that you understand decibels, so this section explains them to you.

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Carrier Information Noise Ratio CINR Decibels E-Book Fundamentals Noise Floor Received Signal Strength Indicator RSSI Signal to Noise Ratio SNR Terminology Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


E-Book Section Chapter 1, How Does Radio Work?

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

WISP Networks work with high-performance radios, encoding data onto radio-waves to provide Internet to the end-user. This section describes (in general terms) how radios work, and how polarity and MIMO affect encoding.

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E-Book Section Chapter 1: Introduction to Radio Fundamentals for the WISP Operator

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Tuesday, 04-14-15

Understanding the fundamentals of modern radio technology provides an essential base-line to building a successful WISP.

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E-Book Fundamentals How Radio Works Introduction Wireless Internet Service Provider WISP


Blog Article The District Wi-Fi Project

Author: Herbert Wolverson, Posted: Wednesday, 06-05-13

Full Stream Wireless managed to get the contract to implement The District's Wi-Fi, for a trial period until November (if it goes well, the network will expand to cover a much wider area). I was given the technical lead on this project, so I decided to talk about how we did it.

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District Full Stream NanoStation Loco M5 Rocket M5 Ubiquiti UBNT UniFi Wi-Fi